SOCIOLOGY 6119H    GENDER RELATIONS:

GENDER DIFFERENCES, DIVISIONS AND INEQUALITY

Instructor: Bonnie J. Fox

Office: Room 382, 725 Spadina Ave.

Office Hours:  

Email: bfox@chass.utoronto.ca

Phone: 416 978-4213

Sociology of Gender is an immense field, featuring very fluid boundaries with disciplines such as history, anthropology, philosophy, political science and women =s studies. Over the years, the object of enquiry has shifted. Initially the focus was on understanding the social position of women and the nature of gender inequality in this society, as well as assessing the distortions in major paradigms and subfields in sociology due to gender blindness. With time, gender has been conceptualized in increasingly complex ways B moving from the notion that it consists of sets of characteristics produced by socialization, which fitted people to their A sex roles, @ to a variety of understandings. These include:   gender as an organizing principle (of families and other institutions), gender as social relationships (related somehow to reproduction), gender as a system of meaning, gender as an identity, and gender as a product of everyday practices. Basic to all of these conceptualizations is the conviction that gender is socially constructed. And it is that process of construction that is especially intriguing.

This course aims to provide a survey of the key questions and debates at the centre of scholarship on gender, especially the scholarship of feminist social scientists. The text, Revisioning Gender, is a collection of essays by feminist sociologists in the U.S., on key topics in the field; it provides the organizational framework for the course. The required readings for each week include a chapter from this collection and several important pieces that extend and deepen the discussion begun in the Revisioning Gender chapter. Together, each week =s readings often include both theoretical and empirical articles; the former represent a diversity of theoretical approaches.

Course Format:     About half lecture and half discussion. My role is (a) to give students the background needed to understand the assigned readings and to tie together the different topics, and (b) to lead the class discussion.

Course Requirements:    This is mostly a reading course. Students must do all of the readings that are required each week. To focus the reading, thinking about the readings, and the discussion, students will do a short (2- to 3-page) comment on each week =s readings. This comment piece will consist of a brief summary of the main point or argument in each reading and a very brief comment on one of those arguments (i.e., critically evaluating it, or indicating the questions it raises). These comment pieces are to be handed in at the beginning or end of each class. They will not be graded, but together with class participation they will determine 10 percent of the grade.

Students are expected to come to every class and to take part in the discussion. After the first month, students may be asked to take turns leading class discussions.

The main written work will consist of   two longer (about 10-page) critical essays on the reading material (i.e., each essay will discuss ALL of the readings for one week). These essays are meant to be critical reviews of the central arguments (and evidence, if relevant) presented in a week's readings. They should clearly summarize the main arguments in the readings, and then evaluate them critically.

As well, each student will produce a longer essay that discusses one of the topics covered in the course, drawing on both required readings and additional sources.   (Additional bibliography is provided on the course outline, but every student should talk to me about what they are going to write, and solicit help with references.)    This paper will be in the form of a research proposal that reviews an important set of questions and debates in the literature and proposes some new direction for further research.    [Students who wish may do two additional critical essays instead of this longer essay.]

Grading:

Class participation [and weekly comments]-------------10%

Two critical essays------------------------each 25%

Research proposal-------------------------40%

[or two additional critical essays, each worth 20%]

Readings:

Ferree , Myra Marx, 1999. Revisioning Gender. Thousand Oaks: Sage

The other readings will be made available at the start of the course.

 

Course Outline

I.   Race, Class, Gender Oppression

A.   The Issues in Question:   The Case of Paid Domestic Labour

How the key forms of social inequality B race, class and gender B intersect in this society is the most vexed question in the field. We begin the course by considering the situation of paid domestic workers in Canada today. This topic will generate a long list of questions that should motivate and guide our exploration of the literature, and the field in general.

Required Readings:

Ferree, Myra Marx, Judith Lorber and Beth Hess, 1999. Introduction in Revisioning Gender

  Arat-Koc, Sedef, 2001. A The politics of family and immigration in the subordination of domestic workers in Canada. @   In Family Patterns, Gender Relations, ed. by B. Fox (Oxford UP)

  Bakan, Abigail and Daiva Stasiulis, 1997. A Introduction, @ and A Foreign domestic worker policy in Canada and the social boundaries of modern citizenship. @ In Not One of the Family, ed. by A. Bakan and D. Stasiulis (University of Toronto Press)

Optional Readings:

Arat-Koc, Sedef, 1992. A Immigration policies, migrant domestic workers and the definition of citizenship in Canada. @   In Deconstructing a Nation: Immigration, Culturalism and Racism in the > 90s Canada, ed. by Victor Satzewich  (Fernwood)

  Bakan, Abigail, 1995.   A Making the match: domestic placement agencies and the racialization of women 's household work. @   Signs 20, 2

  Ehrenreich, Barbara and Arlie R. Hochschild, eds., 2002. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids, and Sex Workers in the New Economy. (Metropolitan)

  Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette, 2001. Domestica.   (University of California Press)

  Rollins, Judith, 1985. Between Women: Domestics and their Employers.   (Temple UP)

  Romero, Mary, 1992. Maid in the USA.   (Routledge)

Stasiulis, Daiva and Abigail Bakan, 2003. A Underdevelopment, structural adjustment and gendered migration from the West Indies and the Philippines. @ In Negotiating Citizenship, ed.by Stasiulis, D. and A. Bakan.   (Palgrave Macmillan)  

Background Readings:

Collins, Patricia Hill, 1990. Black Feminist Thought. (Harper Collins)

Collins, Patricia Hill, 1998. Fighting Words: Black Women and the Search for Justice. (University of Minnesota Press)

Li, Peter, ed., 1999.   Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada. Second Edition.   (Oxford UP)

B.   Conceptualizing Intersectionality

This class takes up the more theoretical issues raised in the first set of readings. Evelyn Nakano Glenn makes clear how race and gender intersect in the organization of domestic labour in this society. Daiva Stasiulis provides a more theoretic discussion of intersectionality. Bonnie Thornton Dill, Jacquelyn Dowd Hall and Dione Brand provide examples of the intersection and mutual social construction of gender and race. In considering the intersection of race and gender (and class), we begin our discussion of feminist theory with the most difficult questions about the nature of social inequality. In grappling with the issue how these sources of inequality are entangled, we necessarily raise important questions about how we conceive of gender and how to study inequality.

Required Readings:

Nakano Glenn, Evelyn, 1999. A The social construction and institutionalization of gender and race: an integrative framework. @   In Revisioning Gender, ed. by M.M. Ferree, J. Lorber and B. Hess

  Stasiulis, Daiva, 1999. A Feminist intersectional theorizing. @   In Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada. Second Edition, ed. by Peter Li (Oxford UP)

  Dill, Bonnie Thornton, 1999 [1988]. A Fictive kin, paper sons, and compadrazgo: women of color and the struggle for family survival. @   In American Families, ed.by Stephanie Coontz. (Routledge)

   Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, 1983. A The mind that burns in every body: women, rape, and racial violence. @ In Powers of Desire, ed. by Ann Snitow, C. Stansell and S. Thompson (Monthly Review Press)

  Brand, Dione, 1999 [1987]. A Black women and work: the impact of racially constructed gender roles on the sexual division of labour. @   In Scratching the Surface: Canadian Anti-Racist Feminist Thought, ed. by Enakshi Dua and Angela Robertson (Women 's Press)

Optional Readings:

Nakano Glenn, Evelyn, 1992. A From servitude to service work: historical continuities in the racial division of paid reproductive labor. @   Signs 18

  Nakano Glenn, Evelyn, 2002. Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor.   (Harvard University Press) [ch. 1,2,3 especially]

 Parr, Joy and Mark Rosenfeld, eds., 1996. Gender and History in Canada. (Copp Clark) [chaps. by Pon and Carter especially]

Roschelle, Ann, 1999. A Gender, Family Structure and Social Structure: Racial Ethnic Families in the United States. @   In RG

Background Readings:

 Omi, Michael and Howard Winant, 1994. Racial Formation in the United States from the 1960s to the 1990s.  (Routledge)

  Anderson, Kay, 1991. Vancouver 's Chinatown: Racial Discourse in Canada, 1875-1980. (McGill-Queen 's)

C.    Social Class and Gender

           (1)   Women 's Unpaid Work (theoretical considerations and empirical findings)

Continuing the discussion of intersecting social inequalities, Joan Acker raises questions about how to conceptualize the intersection of gender and class. In so doing, Acker briefly discusses analyses of the nature of the inequalities that arise out of domestic labour. Barbara Laslett and Johanna Brenner provide a discussion of the intersection of gender and class that is complementary to Acker 's. On the matter of domestic labour, Meg Luxton and June Corman, Anthony McMahon, and Marjorie DeVault provide analyses of women 's work in the home developed from different theoretical approaches.   Bianchi et al. summarize recent American findings on the division of household work

The readings for this class cover two questions: how do we conceptualize (and approach the study of) the gender inequality that inheres in the gendered division of household work and responsibility [ie, what are the different theoretical approaches of feminist researchers], and how do we conceptualize the intersection of class and gender.  

Required Readings:

Acker, Joan, 1999. A Rewriting Class, Race, and Gender: Problems in Feminist Rethinking. @ In Revisioning Gender, ed.by MM Ferree, J Lorber and B Hess

 Laslett, Barbara and Johanna Brenner, 1989. A Gender and Social Reproduction: Historical Perspectives. @   Annual Review of Sociology 15: 381-404

  Luxton, Meg and June Corman, 2001. Getting By in Hard Times.   A@ Women 's Work: Juggling Job and Family, @ and A Domestic Labour as Maintaining a Household. @ In Getting By in Hard Times: Gendered Labour at Home and on the Job.   (Univ. of Toronto Press)

  McMahon, Anthony, 1999. A Having A Wife. @   In Taking Care of Men.  (Cambridge UP)

  DeVault, Marjorie, 1991. A Constructing the Family. @ In Feeding the Family. ((Univ. of Chicago)

  Suzanne Bianchi, M. Milkie, L. Sayer, and J. Robinson, 2000. A Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor @ Social Forces 79, 1

Optional Readings: [theoretical]

  Acker, Joan, 1988. A Class, Gender and The Relations of Distribution. @ Signs 13: 473-97

  Delphy, Christine and Diana Leonard, 1992. Familiar Exploitation. (Polity Press)

  Fox, Bonnie, 1988. A Conceptualizing > Patriarchy =@ Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 25,2: 163-82

 Gottfried, Heidi, 1998. A Beyond Patriarchy: Theorizing Gender and Class. @ Sociology 32, 3: 451-68

  Hartmann, Heidi, 1981. A The Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism: Toward a More Progressive Union. @   Pp. 1-41 in Women and Revolution, ed. by Lydia Sargent. (South End)

  Hamilton, Roberta and Michele Barrett, eds.,1986. The Politics of Diversity.   (Verso) [part II]

  Luxton, Meg, More Than a Labour of Love. (Women 's Press)

   McMahon, Anthony, 1999. Taking Care of Men: Sexual Politics in the Public Mind. (Cambridge UP)

  Walby, Sylvia, 1986. Patriarchy at Work. (University of Minnesota)

[empirical]

 Brines, Julie, 1994. A Economic Dependency, Gender, and the Division of Labor at Home. @ American Journal of Sociology 100, 3: 652-88

 Coltrane, Scott, 1996. Family Man: Fatherhood, Housework and Gender. (Oxford UP)

 Hochschild, Arlie, 1989. The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home. (Viking)

 Shelton, Beth Anne and Daphne John, 1996. A The Division of Household Labor. @ Annual Review of Sociology 22: 299-322

 Shelton, Beth Anne, 1992. Women, Men and Time: Gender Differences in Paid Work, Housework and Leisure.   (Greenwood)

 Komter, Aafke, 1989. A Hidden Power in Marraige. @ Gender & Society 3, 2: 187-217

 Vogler, Carolyn and Jan Pahl, 1994. A Money, Power and Inequality Within Marriage. @ The Sociological Review 42, 2: 263-88

Background Reading:

Barrett, Michele, 1980. Women 's Oppression Today: Problems in Marxist Feminist Analysis. (Verso)

  Eisenstein, Zillah, 1979. Capitalist Patriarchy and the Case for Socialist Feminism.   (Monthly Review Press)

  Engels, Frederick, 1975 [1942}. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. (International Publishers) with Introduction by Eleanor B.Leacock

  Fox, Bonnie, ed., 1980.   Hidden in the Household: Women 's Domestic Labour Under Capitalism.  (Women 's Press)

  Hansen, Karen, and Ilene Philipson, eds., 1990. Women, Class and the Feminist Imagination. (Temple UP)

  Marx, Karl, Das Capital. Vol I

  Maroney, Heather Jon and Meg Luxton, 1987. Feminism and Political Economy.  (Methuen)

  Sargent, Lydia, 1981. Women and Revolution: a Discussion of the Unhappy Marriage of Marxism and Feminism. (South End Press)

(2)   On Gendered Class: Gender in Paid Work

Our consideration of gender inequality in the paid labour force will focus much less on why such inequality exists (see Sonya Rose for an historical explanation) and more on how paid work and workplaces are gendered.   Joan Acker 's discussion makes the argument; Patricia Martin and David Collinson 's piece is a more recent discussion. Jennifer Pierce 's book provides a terrific illustration of the point. William Bielby and James Baron 's article is one of the better empirical studies of the nature and sources of gender inequality in the paid labour force today.

Required Readings:

Martin, Patricia Y. and David Collinson, 1999. A Gender and sexuality in organizations. @ In RG

  Acker, Joan, 1990. A Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: a theory of gendered organizations. @ Gender & Society 4, 2

  Bielby, William and James Baron, 1986. A Men and Women at Work: Sex Segregation and Statistical Discrimination. @ AJS 91, 4: 759-800

  Pierce, Jennifer, 1995. Gender Trials. Chaps. 3 & 4 (University of California Press)

Optional Readings:

Brooks, Bradley, Jennifer Jarman and Robert Blackburn, 2003. A Occupational gender segregation in Canada, 1981-1996: overall, vertical and horizontal segregation. @ Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 40, 2

  Cockburn, Cynthia, 1983. Brothers: Male Dominance and Technological Change. (Pluto)

  Collinson, David, David Knights, and Margaret Collinson, 1990 Managing to Discriminate. (Routledge)

    Creese, Gillian, 1999. Contracting Masculinity: Gender, Class and Race in a White-Collar Union, 1944-1994.  (Oxford UP)

  Game, Rosemary and Rosemary Pringle, 1983. Gender at Work.  (George Allen & Unwin)

  Hartmann, Heidi, 1990 [1976]. A Capitalism, Patriarchy and Job Segregation by Sex. @ In Women, Class and the Feminist Imagination, ed. by Karen Hansen and Ilene Philipson (Temple UP)

  Mills, Albert and Peta Tancred, eds., 1992. Gendering Organizational Analysis. Sage

  Milkman, Ruth, 1987. Gender at Work: The Dynamics of Job Segregation by Sex during World War II. (U. of Illinois)

   Milkman, Ruth, 1997. Farewell to the Factory: Auto Workers in the Late Twentieth Century. (U. of California)

  Phillips, Anne and Barbara Taylor, 1986. A Sex and skill, @ Feminist Review, ed., Waged Work. (Virago Press)

  Rose, Sonya, 1992. Limited Livelihoods: Gender and Class in Nineteenth-Century England.  (U. of California)

  Williams, Christine, 1995. Still a Man 's World: Men Who Do Women 's Work. (Univ. of Cal. P)

  Willis, Paul, 1977. Learning to Labour.  (Gower)

Background Readings:

Cohn, Samuel, 2000.   Race, Gender and Discrimination.  (Westview)

Padavic, Irene and Barbara Reskin, 2002. Women and Men at Work. Second Edition. (Pine Forge Press)

III.   Sex/Gender: Speaking of Difference, or the Social Construction of Difference

(1) Sex/Gender

How we conceptualize gender, and the relationship between sex (as in male and female bodies) and gender, are complex issues. Joan Scott 's discussion of gender and the notion of difference is thought-provoking and representative of the thinking current among many feminist scholars. Bob Connell and Judith Lorber, both sociologists, provide complementary discussions that focus more on sex and sexuality.   Gayle Rubin 's article is a classic - an early second-wave attempt to theorize gender and sexuality.   Biologist Anne Fausto-Sterling provides an historical example of how assumptions about gender have shaped our thinking about biology (and sex).

Required Readings:

Scott, Joan Wallach, 1999. A Some Reflections on Gender and Politics, @ RG

 Connell, R.W., 1999. A Making Gendered People: Bodies, Identities, Sexualities, @ RG

  Lorber, Judith, 1996. A Beyond the Binaries: Depolarizing the Categories of Sex, Sexuality and Gender, @ Sociological Inquiry 66, 2: 143-59

 Fausto-Sterling, Anne, 2000. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Chap. 8   (Basic Books)  

  Rubin, Gayle, 1975. A The Traffic in Women: Notes on the > Political Economy = of Sex. @   Pp. 157-210 in Toward an Anthropology of Women, edited by Rayna Reiter. (Monthly Review Press)

Optional Readings:

  Bordo, Susan, 1993. Unbearable Weight.   (Farrar, Straus & Giroux)

  Fausto-Sterling, Sexing the Body [see above]

  Kessler, Suzanne, 1990. A The Medical Construction of Gender: Case Management of Intersexed Infants. @ Signs 16: 3-26

  Kessler, Suzanne, 2002. Lessons From the Intersexed. (Rutgers University Press)

Background Readings:

  Bleier, Ruth, 1984. Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women. (Pergamon)

  Fausto-Sterling, Anne, 1985. Myths of Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men. (Basic Books)

 Lacquer, Thomas, 1990. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud. (Cambridge University Press).

  Lloyd, Genevieve, 1984. The Man of Reason @ > Male = and > Female = in Western Philosophy. (University of Minnesota Press)

(2)   Sexuality

These readings are on the social construction of sexuality, seen in a number of different ways. Steven Seidman provides a basic introduction to the argument that sexuality is socially constructed. Pepper Schwartz and Virginia Rutter offer an empirically based discussion of sexuality and its social construction.

Required Readings:

Lorber, Judith, 1999. A Embattled Terrain: Gender and Sexuality, @ RG

Seidman, Steven, 2003. The Social Construction of Sexuality. Intro and A The Rise of a Heterosexual Identity @ (WW Norton & Co)

Schwartz, Pepper and Virginia Rutter, 1998. The Gender of Sexuality. (Pine Forge Press)

Optional Readings:  

Adams, Mary Louise, 1997. The Trouble With Normal: Postwar youth and the Making of Heterosexuality. (University of Toronto Press)

Hollway, Wendy, 2001 [1983]. A Heterosexual Sex: Power and Desire for the Other. @ In Family Patterns, Gender Relations, ed.by B. Fox (Oxford UP)

Rubin, Lillian, 1990. Erotic Wars: What Happened to the Sexual Revolution? (Farrar, Straus & Giroux)

Segal, Lynne, 1994. Straight Sex: The Politics of Pleasure.   (Virago)

Stein, Arlene, 1997.   Sex and Sensibility: Stories of a Lesbian Generation. (Univ. California P)

  Snitow, Ann, Christine Stansell and Sharon Thompson, eds. 1983. Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality.  Monthly Review Press [Adrienne Rich, A Compulsory Heterosexuality @ +]

Valverde, Mariana, 1985. Sex, Power and Pleasure. (Women 's Press)

Weeks, Jeffrey, 1986. Sexuality. (The Open University)

Weeks, Jeffrey, 1985. Sexuality and Its Discontents: Meanings, Myths and Modern Sexualities. (Routledge & Kegan Paul).

Background Readings:

D' Emilio, John and Estelle Freedman, 1988. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America.   (Harper & Row)

Erickson, Julia, 1999. Kiss and Tell: Surveying Sex in the Twentieth Century. (Harvard UP)

Foucault, Michel, 1978. The History of Sexuality. Vol. I. An Introduction.  Trans. by R. Hurley. (Random House)

Kinsman, Gary, 1987. The Regulation of Desire: Sexuality in Canada.  (Black Rose Books)

IV.   On Gender Identity.

Identity has been the burning issue for the youngest generation of feminist scholars. Candace West and Don Zimmerman 's article is not recent, but it has had more impact on American sociology of gender than perhaps any other theoretical piece in sociology (and some influence in Canada as well). Martha McMahon 's symbolic interactionist work on motherhood and identity represents another approach to the issue of identity (and her book is award-winning).

Required Readings:

West, Candace and Don Zimmerman, 1987. A Doing Gender, @ Gender & Society 1,2: 125-52

McMahon, Martha, 1996. Engendering Motherhood: Identity and Self-Transformation in Women 's Lives.  (The Guilford Press)

Optional Readings:

Benjamin, Jessica, 1988. The Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and the Problem of Domination.  (Pantheon)

Bettie, Julie, 2003. Women Without Class: Girls, Race and Identity. (Univ. of California Press)

Butler, Judith, 1993. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.   (Routledge)

Chodorow, Nancy, 1978. The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender.  (University of California Press) [omit part I, ch. 9]

  Chodorow, Nancy, 1996. A Gender as personal and cultural construction. @ In The Second Signs Reader, ed. by Ruth-Ellen Joeres and Barbara Laslett.   (University of Chicago)

Currie, Dawn, 1999. Girl Talk: Adolescent Magazines and Their Readers. (Univ. of Toronto)  

Smith, Dorothy, 1990. Texts, Facts, and Femininity: Exploring the Relations of Ruling.  (Routledge)

Tavris, Carol, 1992. The Mismeasure of Woman.  (Touchstone)

V.   Family Matters

(1) Motherhood

Motherhood is central to gender relations. These readings cover two topics: childbirth and motherhood. Barbara Katz Rothman raises some interesting issues. Emily Martin provides a cultural analysis of the metaphors that inform medical models of women 's bodies. B. Fox and Diana Worts re-evaluate the long-standing feminist critique of medicalized childbirth. On the matter of parenthood, Sharon Hays discusses popular discourse on motherhood and B. Fox offers a sketchy summary of some of her findings on how inequalities are constructed as heterosexual couples make the transition to parenthood. Linda Blum and Theresa Deussen 's article makes clear how racialized motherhood discourse and experience is.

Required Readings:

Rothman, Barbara Katz, 1999. A Now You Can Choose! Issues in Parenting and Procreation. @ RG

Martin, Emily, 1987. A Medical Metaphors of Women 's Bodies: Birth. @ In The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction. (Beacon Press)

Fox, Bonnie and Diana Worts, 1999. A Revisiting the Critique of Medicalized Childbirth: A Contribution to the Sociology of Birth. @ Gender & Society 13, 3: 326-46

Hays, Sharon, 1996. The Cultural Contradictions of Motherhood.   Ch. 5, A Intensive Mothering: Women 's Work on Behalf of the Sacred Child. @ (Yale UP)

Fox, Bonnie, 1999. A The Formative Years: How Parenthood Creates Gender. @ Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 38, 4: 373-90

   Blum, Linda and Theresa Deussen, 1996. A Negotiating Independent Motherhood: Working-Class African American Women Talk about Marriage and Motherhood. @   Gender & Society 10, 2: 199-211.

Additional Readings:

Davis-Floyd, Robbie, 1992. Birth As An American Rite of Passage. (Univ. of California Press)

Deutsch, Francine, 1999.   Halving It All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works. (Harvard UP)

Eden, Kathryn and Laura Lein, 1997. Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work. (Russell Sage Foundation)

Glenn, Evelyn Nakano, ed., 1994. Mothering: Ideology, Experience, and Agency.  (U of Cal P)

Hays, Sharon, 2003. Flat Broke with Children: Women in the Age of Welfare Reform.  Oxford

Rosenberg, Harriet, 1987. A Motherhood, Stress and Depression: the Cost of Privatized Social Reproduction. @   In Maroney, Heather Jon and Meg Luxton, eds. Feminism and Political Economy.  (Methuen)

Rothman, Barbara Katz, 1989. Recreating Motherhood: Ideology and Technology in a Patriarchal Society.   (WW Norton & Co)

Taylor, Verta, 1996. Rock-A-Bye Baby. New York: (Routledge)

Walzer, Susan, 1996. Thinking About the Baby: Gender and Transitions into Parenthood. (Temple UP)

Background Readings:

Budig, Michelle and Paula England, 2001. A The wage penalty for motherhood. @ ASR 66, 2: 204-25

Eyer, Diane, 1992. Mother-Infant Bonding: A Scientific Fiction.  (Yale University Press).

Oakley, Ann, 1980. Women Confined: Towards a Sociology of Childbirth.  (Martin Robertson)

Rich, Adrienne, 1976. Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution(WW Norton)

(2) The Household Division of Work and the Balancing of Employment and Family Responsibilities (Work/Family Spillover) Amidst Economic Restructuring

Women 's need to balance paid work and household work is probably the most vexing problem facing middle-class women today. (Racial-minority women have faced it for a very long time.) As the economy is being restructured, however, gender relations are changing. Arlie Hochschild 's book is a classic, not only for providing insight into how couples are struggling with balancing paid work and household work but also for its insights into the complexity of gender. But the boundaries between households and A the economy @ are blurring, and conventional gender divisions are unsettled and being contested, as the economy is being restructured. Lisa Brush offers a provocative discussion of some of the dynamics of current restructuring. Kathleen Gerson and Arlie Hochschild offer complementary analyses, focusing on the workplace and households respectively.

Required Readings:

Hochschild, Arlie R. with Ann Machung, 1989. The Second Shift: Working Parents and the Revolution at Home. (Viking)   [omit chapters 7, 10, 11, 17]

Brush, Lisa, 1999. A Gender, Work, Who Cares? Production, Reproduction, Deindustrialization, and Business As Usual. @   RG  

   Gerson, Kathleen, 1998. A Gender and the Future of the Family: Implications for the Postindustrial Workplace. @ In Challenges for Work and Family in the Twenty-First Century, ed.by Dana Vannoy and Paula Dubeck (Aldine de Gruyter)

Hochschild, Arlie R., 1995. A The Third Shift. @ In Time Bind.  (Metropolitan Books)

Additional Readings:

Bianchi, Suzanne, Melissa Milkie, Liana Sayer, John Robinson, 2000, A Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor. @ Social Forces 79, 1: 191-228

Coltrane, Scott, 1996. Family Man: Fatherhood, Housework, and Gender Equity. (Oxford UP)

DeVault, Marjorie, 1991. Feeding the Family: The Social Organization of Caring and Gendered Work.  (Univ. of Chicago P)

Jacobs, Jerry and Kathleen Gerson, 2004. The Time Divide: Work, Family and Gender Inequality.  (Harvard UP)

Komte, Aafke, 1989. A Hidden Power in Marriage. @ Gender & Society 3, 2: 187-217

Luxton, Meg, 1980. More Than A Labour of Love: Three Generations of Women 's Work in the Home.  (Women 's Press)

Shelton, Beth Ann, 1992. Women, Men and Time: Gender Differences in Paid Work, Housework and Leisure.  (Greenwood)

Shelton, Beth Ann, and Daphne John, 1996. A The Division of Household Labor. @ Annual Review of Sociology 22: 299-322

VI.   Globalization

We increasingly live in a global economy, and as a result the privileges of women and men in Canada and the U.S. are increasingly connected to the oppressions of women and men in the Third World. Valentine Mogadam reviews some of the key issues in the literature on gender and the global economy. Ruth Pearson reviews the empirical findings relevant to the question whether involvement in a global economy is good or bad for women in developing countries. Chandra Mohanty, writing from a postmodern position, raises questions about the image of third-world women in the American literature.

Required Readings:

Mogadam, Valentine, 1999. A Gender and the Global Economy. @ RG

  Pearson, Ruth, 1996. A Industrialization and Women 's Subordination: A Reappraisal. @ Pp 169-81 in Patriarchy and Economic Development, ed. by V. Moghadam (Oxford UP)

 Mohanty, Chandra T., 1991. A Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses. @ Pp 51-80 in Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. by C. T Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres (Indiana UP)

Optional Readings:

  Beneria, Lourdes and Martha Roldan, 1987. The Crossroads of Class and Gender: Industrial Homework, Subcontracting, and Household Dynamics in Mexico City. (U Chicago)

 Freeman, Carla, 2000. High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy.  (Duke UP)

 Hsiung, Ping-Chun, 1996. Living Rooms as Factories: Class, Gender, and the Satallite Factory System in Taiwan.   (Temple UP)

 Ward, Kathryn, 1990. A Gender, Work and Development, @ Annual Review of Sociology Sept.

 Wolf, Diane, 1992. Factory Daughters: Gender, Household Dynamics and Rural Industrialization in Java.  (University of California Press)

VII.   Social Movements and State Policies

For some time, feminist researchers have been examining the ways in which welfare-state policies reinforce gender inequalities. Annette Borchorst reviews the major arguments and approaches in this area. The four articles that follow, by Jane Jenson, Rianne Mahon and Lynne Haney, not only discuss state policy approaches but also examine the social movements and individual agency that are behind different approaches taken by different countries (or, in the case of Quebec, provinces).

Required Readings:

Borchorst, Annnette. A Feminist Thinking about the Welfare State. @ RG

Jenson, Jane, 1986. A Gender and Reproduction: Or, Babies and the State. @ Studies in Political Economy 20. pp. 9-46

   Mahon, Rianne, 2001. A Welfare State Restructuring and Changing Gender Relations: The Politics of Family Policy in Sweden and Canada. @   Pp. 525-45 in B. Fox, ed., Family Patterns, Gender Relations. (Oxford UP)

   Jenson, Jane, 2002. A Against the Current: Child Care and Family Policy in Quebec. @ Pp. 309-32 in Child Care Policy at the Crossroads: Gender and Welfare State Restructuring, ed. by Sonya Michel and Rianne Mahon. (Routledge)

  Lynne Haney, 1996. A Homeboys, babies, men in suits: the state and the reproduction of male dominance. @ American Sociological Review, vol. 61, no.5, pp. 759-78

Optional Readings:

Gordon, Linda, 1994. Pitied But Not Entitled: Single Mothers and the History of Welfare. (Harvard UP)

Michel, Sonya and Rianne Mahon, 2002. Child Care Policy at the Crossroads: Gender and Welfare State Restructuring. (Routledge)

O = Connor, Julia, Ann Orloff, and Sheila Shaver, 1999. States, Markets, Families: Gender, Liberalism and Social Policy in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States. (Cambridge UP)

Sainsbury, Diane, 1996. Gender Equality and Welfare States. (Cambridge UP)

VIII.   Reconsiderations of Feminist Theory

TBA after class discussion