V. Journal Articles

i. Review Articles

For this bibliography we have chosen to concentrate on review articles because they provide a broad overview of the topic and discussion of current debates in the literature. Review articles are also useful for identifying seminal writings and providing extensive bibliography.

An analysis of the concept of empowerment / C. M. Rodwell. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1996;23(2):305-13.

This paper is an analysis of empowerment and its use in nursing practice, education, research and health promotion.

Child development and long-term outcomes: A population health perspective and summary of successful interventions / C. Hertzian and M. Weens. Social Science & Medicine 1996;43(7):1083-95.
Discusses the evidence derived from intervention studies in the post-neonatal, reschool, and school age periods which suggest that child development can be modified in ways which improve health and competence in the long-term.

Community health promotion: Concepts and lessons from contemporary sociology / O. Nilsen. Health Policy 1996;36(2):167-83.
Argues that community specifics have not been adequately taken into account in planning health promotion initiatives.

Cultural influences in community participation in health / L. Stone. Social Science & Medicine 1992;35(4):409-17.
This paper traces changes in the way that the role of culture has been analysed in relation to community health issues and in particular with respect to 'community participation'.

Determinants of a health-promoting lifestyle: An integrative review / A.F. Gillis. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1993;18(3):345-53.
Reviews literature published between 1983 and 1991 that focused on identifying the determinants of a health-promoting lifestyle.

Dissemination and utilization of health promotion and disease prevention knowledge: Theory, research and experience / L.W. Green and J.L. Johnson. Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue/Canadienne de Sante Publique 1996;87 Suppl 2:S11-17.

Economic impoverishment as a health risk: Methodologic and conceptual issues / M.A. Nelson. Advances in Nursing Science 1994;16(3):1-12.
Argues that a number of methodologic and conceptual issues have impeded understanding of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health.

Effective mental health promotion: A literature review / R. Hodgson, T. Abbasi and J. Clarkson. Health Education Journal 1996; 55(1):55-74.

The effectiveness of community health nursing interventions: A literature review / L.W. Deal. Public Health Nursing 1994;11(5):315-23.
This article describes services provided by community health nurses and documents the effectiveness of these interventions based on available literature.

The evolution, impact and significance of the Healthy Cities/ Healthy Communities movement / T. Hancock. Journal of Public Health Policy 1993;14(1):5-18.
Reviews the concept of Healthy Cities, its evolution and current practice, considers some of the problems in applying the concept, and speculates on its potential future development.

From preventive health behaviour to health promotion: Advancing a positive construct of health/ P.A. Kulbok and J.H. Baldwin. Advances in Nursing Science 1992;14(4):50-64.
A review of health promotion research in nursing, focussing on the conceptualization and measurement of health promotion behaviours.

General strategies for motivating people to change their behaviour / S. Damrosch. Nursing Clinics of North America 1991;26(4):833-43.
Discusses the cumulative findings of numerous studies of motivation to change behaviour.

Health promotion and the older population: Expanding our theoretical horizons / M.S. Caserta. Journal of Community Health 1995;20(3):283-92.
Explores the challenges of gerontological health education to traditional models of health promotion.

Health promotion, community development and the tyranny of individualism / A. Shiell and P. Hawe. Health Economics 1996;5(3):241-7.

The Healthy Cities Project: A challenge for health education / J. Ashton. Health Education Quarterly 1991;18(1):39-48.

Healthy Cities: Toward worldwide health promotion / B.C. Flynn. Annual Review of Public Health 1996;17:299-309.
This review describes the status of Healthy Cities globally and presents case studies.

Healthy Cities vision--An emerging global awareness and Indian perspective / V.M. Gupta. Indian Journal of Public Health 1995;39(2):50-7.

A holosphere of healthy and sustainable communities / R. Labonté. Australian Journal of Public Health 1993;17(1):4-12.

Learning to 'walk our talk': The implications of sociological theory for research methodologies in health promotion / B.D. Poland. Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique 1992; 83 Suppl 1:S31-46.
A discussion of the implications of recent shifts in health promotion research for methodology.

New health promotion movement: A critical examination / A. Robertson and M. Minkler. Health Education Quarterly 1994;21(3):295-312.
This paper explores the meanings of the ideas of the new health promotion movement and explores implications for practice.

Nursing and health promotion: Conceptual concerns / F.G. Delaney. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1994;20(5):828-35.
This essay considers the contribution of nursing to health promotion and the usage of concepts of health promotion in nursing literature.

Older adults' experience of health promotion: A theory for nursing practice / M. Frenn. Public Health Nursing 1996;13(1):65-71.

An outcomes approach to population health at the local level in NSW: Practical problems and potential solutions / C. Rissel, J. Ward and P. Sainsbury. Australian Health Review 1996;19(2):23-39.
Describes how the Central Sydney Area Health Service has established a Needs Assessment & Health Outcomes Unit to help improve health outcomes. Issues in working with population health outcomes at the local level are discussed.

Powerlessness, empowerment, and health: Implications for health promotion programs / N. Wallerstein. American Journal of Health Promotion 1992;6(3):197-205.
Reviews the health and social science research on the role of powerlessness as a risk factor for disease, and the role of empowerment as a health-enhancing strategy.

Program evaluation within a health promotion framework / J.C. Thompson. Canadian Journal of Public Health/ Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique 1992;83 Suppl 1:S67-71.

Realities of Health For All by the year 2000 / T. Rathwell. Social Science & Medicine 1992;35(4):541-7.
Reviews the progress of Member States towards the Regional Health For All goal.

Research in dental health education and health promotion: A review of the literature. / L.F. Brown. Health Education Quarterly 1994;21(1):83-102.

Strategies for maintenance of health-promoting behaviours / A.R. Redland and A.K. Stuifbergen. Nursing Clinics of North America 1993;28(2):427-42.

Strengthening individual and community capacity to prevent disease and promote health: In search of relevant theories and principles / N. Freudenberg, E. Eng, B. Flay, G. Parcel, T. Rogers, and N. Wallerstein. Health Education Quarterly 1995;22(3):290-306.
A discussion of the relationship between theory and practice and its effect on the current research agenda in health promotion.

Towards a research strategy to support public health programs for behaviour change / S. Redman. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Public Health 1996;20(4):352-8.
An analysis of research published by the Australian Journal of Public Health and its utility for practitioners in building effective programs

ii. Other Articles

Advances in public health communication / E. Maibach & D.R. Holtgrave. Annual Review of Public Health 1995;16:219-238.

Outlines the use of communication techniques and technologies to influence individuals, populations and organizations for the purpose of promoting conditions conducive to human and environmental health. Social marketing, risk communication, behavioural decision theory, entertainment education, media advocacy and interactive decision support systems are discussed.

Canadian Conference on Dissemination Research: Strengthening health promotion and disease prevention. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1996;87(suppl. 2).

Delivering the goods, showing our stuff: The case for a constructivist paradigm for health promotion research and practice / R. Labonté and A. Robertson. Health Education Quarterly 1996;23(4):431-47.
This article argues that there has been a tendency to empower the "conventional" positivist paradigm in health promotion research, often at the expense of confounding or ignoring much of health promotion practice. This article argues further that a "constructivist" research paradigm not only has the potential to resolve some of the tensions between research and practice in health promotion but also is inclusive of knowledge generated by the conventional paradigm. The usefulness of a constructivist paradigm is demonstrated through the use of four practice-based case examples drawn from actual community-based health promotion efforts. The congruence of a constructivist paradigm with the health promotion principles of empowerment and community participation are discussed. Finally, this article argues for the acceptance of the legitimacy of knowledge generated from the constructivist paradigm and concludes that this paradigm is more suited to the goals of current health promotion.

The effects of socio-economic status on exercise and smoking: Age-related differences / Andrew V. Wister. Journal of Aging and Health,1996;8(4):467-488.
Logistic regression analyses are performed on the 1990 Canadian Health Promotion Survey to test whether: a) socio-economic status is associated with risky life-style behaviours; and b) the effect of socio-economic status is greater for younger and middle-aged groups than for older age groups. The results indicate that socio-economic status affects health behaviours in relatively important ways, but this depends on the measure (education, income, work status), the specific behaviour, and the age group.

Health outcomes and health promotion: Defining success in health promotion / D. Nutbeam. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 1996;6(2):58-60.

Health-promoting schools. Special Issue of World Health 1996; (July-August): 31p.(English, French and Spanish)
This issue covers 23 articles advocating for increased investments in school health promotion and for diffusing the concept of Health-Promoting Schools on a global scale.

Intentions and changes in exercise behaviour: A life-style perspective / Jean Q. Lock and Andrew V. Wister. Health Promotion International 1992;7(3):195-208.
This article analyzes intentions and reported improvement in exercise behaviour using a set of explanatory variables for the purpose of comparing several theoretical approaches: the social psychological approach; the materialist framework; and the life-style/life-cycle perspectives.

Population health and health promotion: What do they have to say to each other? / Ron Labonté. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1995;86(3):165-68.
The author asserts that much of what is claimed in the name of population health supports the concerns of health promotion. However he also argues that there are some assumptions that may be at odds with those in health promotion and that these assumptions should be debated. These concerns include population health's emphasis on epidemiological methods, its economic conservativism and its silence on ecological questions of overall economic scale. Labonté's discussion outlines how population health differs from health promotion in its underlying philosophy of approach.

Proceedings of the first International Seminar on National Health Promoting Policies, Strategies, and Structures held in Paris from Nov. 21 - 23, 1994. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 1995;2(2/3).

The relationship between self-help group participation and other health behaviours among older adults / Andrew V. Wister. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 1995;14(2):23-38. (English with French abstract).
This paper provides an exploratory analysis of the relationship between participation in self-help groups and other informal and formal strategies by which individuals cope with stressful life events during later life.

Strengthening individual and community capacity to prevent disease and promote health: In search of relevant theories and principles / N. Freudenberg, E. Eng, B.R. Flay, G. Parcel, T. Rogers, N. Wallerstein. Health Education Quarterly 1995;22(3):290-306.
The dominant theoretical models used in health education today are based in social psychology. While these theories have increasingly acknowledged the role of larger social and cultural influences in health behaviour, they have many limitations. Theories seek to explain the causes of health problems, whereas principles of practice, which are derived from practical experience, assist intervenors to achieve their objectives. By elucidating the relationships between theory and practice principles, it may be possible to develop more coherent and effective interventions. The key research agenda for health education is to link theories at different levels of analysis and to create theory-driven models that can be used to plan more effective interventions in the complex environments in which health educators work.

The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organization. The WHOQOL Group. Social Science and Medicine 1995; 41(10):1403-1409.
This paper describes the World Health Organization's project to develop a quality of life instrument (the WHOQOL). It outlines the reasons that the project was undertaken, the thinking that underlies the project, the method that has been followed in its development and the current status of the project. The WHOQOL assesses individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which the live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. It has been developed collaboratively in several culturally diverse centres over four years. Piloting of the WHOQOL on some 4500 respondents in 15 culturally diverse settings has been completed. On the basis of this data the revised WHOQOL Field Trial Form has been finalized, and field testing is currently in progress. The WHOQOL produces a multi-dimensional profile of scores across six domains and 24 sub-domains of quality of life.